Python basic Interview Questions

Here are some Python interview questions and their possible answers:

What is Python?
Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language used for developing a wide range of applications, including web development, scientific computing, data analysis, and machine learning. It was created by Guido van Rossum in the late 1980s.

What are the advantages of using Python?
Python is known for its simplicity, ease of use, readability, and versatility. Some of the main advantages of using Python include:

Easy to learn and use, even for beginners
Large standard library with a wide range of modules
Cross-platform compatibility
Object-oriented, functional, and procedural programming paradigms
Strong community support
What are the different data types in Python?
Some of the commonly used data types in Python include:
Numbers (integers, floats, and complex numbers)

What is a Python module?
A Python module is a file containing Python code, usually with a .py extension, that can be imported and used in other Python scripts or modules. Modules are used to organize code and make it reusable.

How do you create a virtual environment in Python?
To create a virtual environment in Python, you can use the built-in venv module. Here’s an example:

Open a terminal or command prompt
Navigate to the directory where you want to create the virtual environment
Run the command “python -m venv “
Activate the virtual environment by running the command “\Scripts\activate” on Windows or “source /bin/activate” on Linux/MacOS

What is a decorator in Python?
A decorator in Python is a special kind of function that can modify or extend the behavior of another function or method. Decorators are used to add functionality such as logging, caching, or input validation to existing functions without modifying their source code. Decorators are defined using the “@” symbol followed by the name of the decorator function.

What is the difference between a tuple and a list in Python?
In Python, a tuple is an ordered, immutable collection of elements, while a list is an ordered, mutable collection of elements. Tuples are defined using parentheses, while lists are defined using square brackets. Tuples are often used to represent fixed collections of data, such as coordinates or database records, while lists are used for dynamic collections of data that can be modified over time.

What is the difference between “==” and “is” in Python?
In Python, “==” is used to test for equality between two objects, while “is” is used to test for identity. That is, “==” checks if the values of two objects are the same, while “is” checks if they refer to the same object in memory.

What is the purpose of init in Python?
In Python, “init” is a special method that is called when an object of a class is created. It is used to initialize the object’s attributes or properties with default values. The “init” method is often used to set the initial state of an object and can take arguments to customize the object’s creation.

What is a lambda function in Python?
A lambda function in Python is a small anonymous function that can take any number of arguments, but can only have one expression. Lambda functions are often used as a shorthand way to define simple functions without needing to define a named function. Lambda functions are defined using the “lambda” keyword, followed by the function’s arguments and expression, separated by a colon. For example, “

What is a generator in Python?
A generator in Python is a special type of function that returns an iterator, which can be used to generate a sequence of values on the fly. Generators are often used to generate large sequences of data that would otherwise take up too much memory to store in a list or tuple.

What is the difference between a module and a package in Python?
In Python, a module is a single file containing Python code, while a package is a collection of modules organized into a directory hierarchy. Packages are used to organize related modules into a logical structure, making it easier to manage large projects.

What is the purpose of the “self” keyword in Python?
In Python, “self” is a convention used to refer to the current instance of a class. It is typically the first parameter of a method in a class definition and is used to access the instance’s attributes and methods.

What is the difference between a class method and an instance method in Python?
In Python, a class method is a method that is bound to the class and not the instance of the class. It can be called using the class name rather than an instance of the class. An instance method, on the other hand, is a method that is bound to a specific instance of the class and can only be called on that instance.

What is a context manager in Python?
A context manager in Python is a special object that is used to manage resources such as files or network connections. Context managers are typically used in a “with” statement and ensure that the resource is properly initialized and cleaned up when the “with” block is exited.

What is the difference between a shallow copy and a deep copy in Python?
In Python, a shallow copy of an object creates a new object that shares the same memory as the original object, while a deep copy creates a new object with its own memory space. A shallow copy of a mutable object, such as a list or dictionary, will create a new object with references to the same underlying data, while a deep copy will create a completely new object with its own data.

What is the difference between a thread and a process in Python?
In Python, a thread is a lightweight process that runs within the context of a single process and shares its memory space, while a process is a separate instance of a program that runs in its own memory space. Threads are used to perform multiple tasks concurrently within a single program, while processes are used to run multiple programs concurrently.

What is the purpose of the “yield” keyword in Python?
In Python, the “yield” keyword is used in generator functions to return a value and pause the function’s execution until the next value is requested. When a generator function is called, it returns an iterator that can be used to generate a sequence of values one at a time.

How do you handle exceptions in Python?
In Python, exceptions are handled using a try-except block. Code that may raise an exception is placed within a “try” block, and any exceptions that are raised are caught and handled within an associated “except” block. Optionally, a “finally” block can be used to execute cleanup code that should be run regardless of whether an exception was raised.

How do you perform unit testing in Python?
In Python, unit testing is typically performed using the built-in “unittest” module or a third-party testing framework such as pytest. Unit tests are written as separate functions that test specific parts of the code, and can be run using a test runner such as the “unittest” command-line tool or an integrated development environment (IDE).

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